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Want to improve creativity? Then pursue friendships and experiences that are more diverse and cross-cultural, according to research by Van de Vyver and Crisp (“Crossing Divides: The friends who are good for your brain,” BBC).

[M]issionaries are actually the greatest catalyst in the development and stability of nations.

Yet not just any missionaries.

Woodberry’s observations only held true for “conversionary Protestants.” That is, missionaries (1) who preached the gospel with the intent of converting others and forming churches, (2) who encouraged everyone to read the Bible in the local language, and (3) who taught that salvation comes by grace through faith.

Doug Ponder, “Are Missionaries Good for the World?” (Nov 8, 2018)

Ponder concludes from Woodberry’s research that making disciples of Jesus Christ is the most effective way to improve the world.

But so many of the big hits [books, films] have been real surprises that have broken so many of the rules. AI is really great at finding hidden rules and applying them and optimizing everything according to hidden rules, but it’s really the rule-breaking events that have made life exciting for us.

Angela Chen, “Why trying to be too efficient will make us less efficient in the long run: Edward Tenner explains the efficiency paradox,” The Verge (Apr 12, 2018)

*[AI]: artificial intelligence

David DeSteno, “The Only Way to Keep Your Resolutions,” The New York Times (Dec 29, 2017)

Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think,” The Atlantic (Jul 1945)

Personal Knowledge Base: “An enlarged intimate supplement to his memory” /

Consider a future device for individual use, which is a sort of mechanized private file and library. … [A] device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.

—Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think,” The Atlantic Monthly (July 1945), 101-108. As quoted in “Personal knowledge base,” Wikipedia.

Vannevar Bush described an electronic utility he called, “Memex.” It was meant to be a personal knowledge base to handle information overload and new challenges people would face post-WWII.

I was struck by each word of his description of the system as “an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.”

“5 Truths from 10 Years of Discipleship Research”: Disciples Grow by Intentionally Engaging with Scripture Together /

First, a well-meaning jab: it’s not research but Scripture which reveals “truths” about discipleship. Second, a self-deprecating one: it’s easy to post about research anyway when it reinforces your views!

The article linked below is a summary of findings by LifeWay Research about discipleship. It’s succinct and pointed. Here’s my summary of it’s summary: Disciples grow by intentionally engaging with Scripture together.

I’ve put the headings here, but the article has a punchy C.S. Lewis quote and explanations for each point that should also be read.

  1. Discipleship is intentional.
  2. Reading the Bible matters more than anything else.
  3. The discipline of Bible engagement impacts every other discipline.
  4. Groups matter. A lot.
  5. There is a deep connection between discipleship and evangelism.

From Eric Geiger, “5 Truths from 10 Years of Discipleship Research”.

Google Earth globe of the eastern hemisphere with pins showing concentrations of churchless, Bibleless peoples
Churchless, Bibleless, Hopeless /

Missionaries have access to big data now. Researchers maintain databases on locations of ethnic and language groups (ethnolinguistic groups), the number of Christians and churches among them, and Scripture resources available to them. One way churches and mission organizations use research is to uncover unreached peoples and places and direct workers there.

I’m not too big on big data in missions. The problem with it isn’t that we think too big, though I sometimes think of King David’s confession here, “I do not concern myself with great matters or things too wonderful for me” (Ps. 131:1). The problem is that we can’t think big enough. I’ve had missiologists teach me, “God can’t lead you with information you don’t have.” We know he can (see Acts 16:6–10).

Yet God sovereignly leads researchers, too. For the sake of the gospel, it matters that we know about unreached and unengaged peoples and places, “where Christ is not known,” “in the regions beyond” (Rom. 15:20, 1 Cor. 10:16). For a balanced take on missions research, see J.D. Payne’s recent article, “God’s Mission Is Not Limited by Our Ignorance”.

Where There Are “No Christians, No Scripture, No Missionaries”

A pair of researchers, Ted Bergman and Bill Morrison, tried to answer the question: Of the many people groups that need attention, which are the highest priority? They culled a list from the major databases according to three critera, groups which have:

  1. No Christians (and therefore, no churches)
  2. No Scripture
  3. No missionaries with the intent of bringing the gospel to them

The result was a list of 112 people groups, which they published in 2010 and 2011 as “No Christians, No Scripture, No Missionaries: Priority People Groups.”1

While there are opportunities for missionaries among people groups which have access to the gospel but remain functionally churchless and Bibleless, for the 112 peoples on this list, there will be no access to the gospel until an outsider goes in. These are the churchless, Bibleless and hopeless.

May there be hope for these people as it’s written:

Those who were not told about him will see, and those who have not heard will understand. (Is. 52:15 and Rom. 15:21)


The research in “No Christians, No Scripture, No Missionaries” needs an update. People groups are moving targets. Why look at it now? Firstly, five years on, most of the groups remain without churches, Scripture, or gospel workers. Secondly, I hope to point potential workers to concentrations of these groups. Thirdly, we can learn from the search criteria the original researchers used as we determine which people groups need priority attention. Let’s look at the criteria first.

Priority Criteria

What are priorities in missions? It’s important that we ask the right questions. Bergman and Morrison’s first criterion of a priority group was lack of Scripture in any form. They grouped the results by primary language. They were asking, how many languages will missionaries have to learn in order to reach the groups which have no Christians or Scripture?

Some unreached, unengaged people groups share a language. In China, for example, four speak Ersu first: the Ersu, Luzu, Manyak, and Menia. One witness could communicate with speakers from all four groups. This emphasis on primary language puts priority on the verbal communication of God’s Word. The responsibility of Christian missionaries to preach the gospel is “of first importance” (1 Cor. 15:1–3).

One criterion the researchers did not use was population above a certain number. It’s become common practice in missions research to prioritize large groups (100,000 in population and above) over small groups (under 10,000). But Bergman and Morrison took their cues from Scripture where they did not see this distinction.

Another criterion for a group to make the list was that it be unreached. The researchers defined “reached” as a group which had a growing church with access to the Bible. They put this forward as a better definition than what’s in use today, the arbitrary threshold of two percent evangelical Christian.

For a group to be counted as “reached” with the gospel, the absolute minimum is that there be a church — not just any church, but a growing body with access to the Bible in a language they understand well.2

The researchers judged that growing churches, understandable Scriptures, and gospel workers are all necessary elements for kingdom work to go forward among a people group. The absence of any one of these elements is enough to warrant the attention of missionaries. The absence of all three warrants priority attention.

Hotspots of Hopelessness

The research showed concentrations of priority people groups in China, Nepal and Iran. I plotted the groups on a map with location data from Joshua Project. The map reveals broader clusters in Saharan Africa, the Caucasus and Zagros Mountains of Central Asia, and across the Himalayas. These “hotspots” of hopelessness span political boundaries and center on regions of extreme terrain.

These people live in places that remain difficult to access and need the concerted efforts of churches and generations of workers. These are not people who’ve yet been caught in the wide net of a fishing missionary, though missionaries labor through hundreds of trade languages and thousands of Asian towns. The hotspots are blindspots to us on the ground.

Even still, more missionaries should learn the trade languages of these areas of concentration, such as Nepali, Central Tibetan, Mandarin Chinese or Persian. Doing so would put us in a better position to engage the unengaged. It would put us in a position to help the closest churches equip and send missionaries of their own.

Moving Target

Our people group categories do not fully represent reality or the intention of Scripture. People can share affinities in many ways besides ethnicity or language. And people don’t stay still but change throughout their lives and from generation to generation. Furthermore, the “all nations” (panta ta ethne) target of the Great Commission means more than just the 11,000 or so ethnolinguistic groups. It means what it meant to those Jewish disciples who first beheld their triumphant Lord: the gospel is good not just for you, but for everyone everywhere.

By focusing on certain people groups, we overlook the world at our doorstep, people who are also functionally churchless and Bibleless and without hope. On the other hand, beyond our doors and beyond the doors of any known church or believer, there are some people who will not be reached until someone single-mindedly goes after them. Who, with Jesus, will “leave the ninety-nine,” “not greet anyone on the road,” “go on to the next towns,” “go into all the world,” and “go after the lost one until he finds it” (Lk. 15:4; 10:4; Mk. 1:38; 16:15).

So we keep the categories and criteria for now, and update our lists until we reach each known people and see if there are still any “regions beyond.” To the best of my knowledge this list represents genuine and priority needs today. I work near a concentration of these groups and most remain unreached and unengaged. I know other workers who have begun to engage a few of the groups and they need help.

Here are updates to the Bergman and Morrison list that I’ve found so far:

  • Pahlavani of Afghanistan seems to be extinct now.
  • Panang of China (Banag) is no longer listed as a separate language but a dialect of Amdo Tibetan. One of the Bonan groups (Tu) is now classified as it’s own language group.
  • Chaudangsi and Darmiya of India are now threatened languages (and not listed as primary languages of any group on Joshua Project). The statuses of Kurmukar, Shumcho and Sunam are unclear.
  • Baraamu of Nepal (Baram) is nearly extinct. Chhulung and Dumi are shifting and no longer vital languages. Northern Ghale, Jerung, Northern Lorung (Lohorung), Lumba-Yakkha and Puma are threatened. Southern Lorung is now a distinct language, Southern Yamphu. Yamphe seems to be an alternate name of Yamphu. Nubri is now said to be spoken by 2 people groups. The statuses of Tichurong and Thudam are unclear.
  • The statuses of the Dehwari, Lasi and Waneci of Pakistan are unclear.
  • The language code for Tunisian Sign Language has been corrected to ‘tse’ (not ‘thm’).

Priority People Groups (2011)

See the original article (2010), the 2011 update and the updated list by Ted Bergman and Bill Morrison for details of the language groups, including languages codes, populations and statuses from the major databases.

I simplified the original list below, showing only the language groups with their hub countries and linked to their respective pages on Joshua Project. I plotted the groups on an interactive map with location data from Joshua Project, included below for you to explore. You can see concentrations of groups that follow geographical features and cross political boundaries, such as in the Himalayas.

Let’s explore avenues of access and go as close as we can to the vicinities and languages of these priority peoples. Let’s mobilize believers and churches in neighboring areas to go closer still. Let’s pray for hope for the churchless, Bibleless, hopeless.

Language Hub Country
Pashayi, Northeast Afghanistan
Pashayi, Northwest Afghanistan
Gawar-Bati Afghanistan
Grangali Afghanistan
Pahlavani Afghanistan
Tregami Afghanistan
Kamviri Afghanistan
Chenoua Algeria
Korandje Algeria
Kryts Azerbaijan
Dakpakha Bhutan
Gongduk Bhutan
Lhokpu Bhutan
Lakha Bhutan
Nyenkha Bhutan
Barein Ch‌ad
Daju, Dar Sila Ch‌ad
Fongoro Ch‌ad
Kibet Ch‌ad
Sinyar Ch‌ad
Ainu China
Bugan China
Bunu, Wunai China
Cao Miao China
E China
Ersu (4 groups) China
Miao, Southern Mashan China
Miao, Southwestern Huishui China
Miao, Luopohe (2 groups) China
Miao, Northern Mashan China
Hu China
Tsat China
Shangzhai/sTodsde China
Guanyinqiao/Lavrung (2 groups) China
Kemiehua China
Kon Keu China
Man Met China
Namuyi China
Panang China
Bonan (3 groups) China
Bolyu China
Shixing China
U China
Wutunhua China
Ache China
Bhunjia India
Chaudangsi India
Darmiya India
Kurmukar India
Shumcho India
Sunam India
Kumbewaha Indonesia
Bashkardi Iran
Fars, Northwestern Iran
Gazi Iran
Khunsari Iran
Karingani Iran
Khalaj, Turkic Iran
Lari Iran
Natanzi Iran
Nayini Iran
Parsi-Dari Iran
Sivandi Iran
Soi Iran
Takestani Iran
Bit Laos
Phong-Kniang Laos
Tai Pao Laos
Kuan Laos
Baraamu Nepal
Chhulung Nepal
Dumi Nepal
Ghale, Northern Nepal
Jerung Nepal
Kyerung Nepal
Nubri Nepal
Lorung, Northern Nepal
Lorung, Southern Nepal
Lumba-Yakkha Nepal
Puma Nepal
Tichurong Nepal
Thudam Nepal
Tsum Nepal
Yamphu Nepal
Yamphe Nepal
Kumzari Oman
Dehwari Pakistan
Lasi Pakistan
Waneci Pakistan
Dido Russia
Ghodoberi Russia
Khvarshi Russia
Karata Russia
Bagvalal Russia
Tindi Russia
Dabarre Somalia
Garre Somalia
Jiiddu Somalia
Tunni Somalia
Dair Sudan
Ko Sudan
Kadaru Sudan
Tese Sudan
Midob Sudan
Warnang Sudan
Aheu Thailand
Balkan Gagauz Turkish Turkey
Algerian Sign Language Algeria
Persian Sign Language Iran
Mozambican Sign Language Mozambique
Saudi Arabian Sign Language Saudi Arabia
Tunisian Sign Language Tunisia

  1. Ted Bergman and Bill Morrison, “No Christians, No Scripture, No Missionaries: Priority People Groups,” published in 2010 and updated in 2011. See the 2011 article and the list. ↩︎

  2. Bergman and Morrison. ↩︎

“Faith, Hope, Love — A Primitive Christian Triad” Highlights /

Study the apostles’s teaching and you’ll see the pattern of “faith, hope, love.” What did this mean to the early church and missions? I’m digging in.

Here are research highlights of “Faith, Hope, Love — A Primitive Christian Triad” in A. M. Hunter, Paul and His Predecessors (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961), 33–35. Available online at archive.org.

Faith, Hope, Love — A Primitive Christian Triad.

[S]everal strands of evidence unite to prove that the triad is not Paul’s own coinage, but a piece of pre-Pauline Christianity derived possibly from a saying of Jesus himself. ¶ The triad is found not only in 1 Cor. 13:13, but also in 1 Thess. 1:3, 5:8; Rom. 5:1–5; Gal. 5:5–6; Col. 1:4–5; Eph. 4:2–5; Heb. 6:10–12, 10:22–24; 1 Pet. 1:3–8, 21–22, and once or twice in the Apostolic Fathers. …

[T]he same sequence of the graces is observed by three different writers. ¶ All this is surely not fortuitous. It strongly suggests that the triad in Paul is not his own creation, but something common and apostolic, perhaps a sort of compendium of the Christian life current in the early apostolic church. …

Consider how it crops up in 1 Cor. 13. … [W]hy does Paul drag in faith and hope at all at the end of his hymn in praise of love? … The inference is that the mention of love suggested the other two members of what was already a traditional triad. ¶ … [T]he words ‘these three’ suggest that it is a familiar triad. …

Very significant is the almost tell-tale way in which Paul quotes the triad in 1 Thess. 5:8. … ¶ … Paul combines the old Jewish figure with the pre-Pauline Christian triad, ‘Faith, hope, love,’ and that it is only with some difficulty that he achieves the combination. …

I do think that the twofold chain of evidence formed by (1) the recurrence of the triad in Paul, Peter, Hebrews, etc., and (2) the remarkable saying attributed by Macarius to the Lord, strongly suggests that this triadic formula is not only a bit of very early Christianity, but may very possibly be derived from a logion of Jesus.

“Faith, Hope and Love in the Colossian Epistle”: Highlights /

Highlights of Stephen Rockwell, “Faith, hope and love in the Colossian Epistle,” in The Reformed Theological Review, v. 72 n. 1 (Apr 2013): 36–52.

[T]his triad of faith, love and hope does not only occur in the introductory thanksgiving to the Colossians, but can be found throughout the epistle, perhaps even structuring the very core of the epistles message. …

[U]nlike any of the other triadic statements in the Pauline corpus, only here does Paul make hope the basis for both faith and love. …

The perichoretic nature of the triadic elements is evident. All three are essential to Christian living and all three are dependent on, and enriching for, each other. …

As in many of Paul’s letters, this notion of hope which is introduced in the thanksgiving is further expounded in the main body of the epistle. So the reader discovers that the source of this hope is to be found in the gospel (1:23); that the focus of this hope is the mystery of God which Paul reveals to be ‘Christ in you’ (1:27); and that which is hoped for is future glory along with Christ (1:27). This glory should be the focus of the believers’ minds and hearts (3:1–4) and shape their actions in this present life (3:5–14).

Here in Colossians, as in 1 Thessalonians, Paul seems to use the word order and the sentence structure to give the greatest emphasis to the notion of hope above the other two virtues. The flexibility in which Paul applies this triad has already been observed with love the focus in 1 Corinthians 13. It appears as if it is the context into which the apostle writes that leads him to emphasise hope in this instance. …

Much like Timothy had reported to Paul on the status of the Thessalonian believers (1 Thess. 3:6), so Epaphras has reported to Paul concerning the Colossians. The report contains good news about their faith and love…. The triad is being used here to summarise the Christian convictions and actions of the believers in Colossae and form the basis of Paul’s thanks to God on their behalf. This triadic formulation of the Colossian Christians’ lives included in the introductory thanksgiving section of Paul’s letter shows the significance of these three virtues for Paul. Martin observes that ‘Paul’s use of the pattern [of faith, hope and love] in this passage is formed by a concern to celebrate the Christian experience of his readers’.²⁰ Not only that, but the occurrence of the triad within this thanksgiving section of the epistle allows Paul to introduce what will constitute the main imperatival thrust of his teaching in the letter. …

Thus, the first three imperatival phrases which command the Colossian believers to live a life that is in line with their faith in Jesus Christ [2:6–7], shaped by the eschatological hope they possess in Christ [3:1–4] and adorned by love [3:12–14], form the basis for the remaining eleven imperatives in the letter. Faith, hope and love are what shape the structure of the Colossian letter, seen particularly through Paul’s use of the imperative mood.